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      中国文化产业网>珠宝>新闻动态>

      新闻动态

      南非火山管中的一颗钻石竟然包裹着一种神秘矿物质!

      2019-09-27    来源:互联网    编辑:赵辉

      20190925-6fe64f0d2ca03bf2_680x5000.jpg

      包裹在钻石里的一粒岩石竟然含有一种人类以前从来未发现过的矿物质。

      地幔是介于地壳和外地核之间的岩层,而这些新发现的物质可能会为我们揭示在地幔深处发生的奇异化学反应。

      科学家们从南非一个名为Koffiefonteinpipe的火山管中发掘出了这种矿物。在火山管中,发光的钻石点缀在火山管周围的黑色火成岩上,钻石本身含有来自地下数百英里的其他微小矿物,在其中一块闪闪发光的钻石中,科学家们发现了一种深绿色的不透明矿物,据他们估计,这种矿物是在约105英里(170公里)深的地下形成的。

      根据9月1日发表在《美国矿物学家》杂志上的研究,他们将新发现的矿物命名为“goldschmidtite”,以纪念著名的地球化学家维克多·莫里茨·戈德施密特(goldschmidtite)。

      据《国家地理》杂志报道,整个地幔厚约1802英里(2900公里),这使得科学家很难对地幔最下层的区域进行研究。上地幔的巨大压力和高温会将碳沉积物转化为闪闪发光的钻石,而包裹其他地幔矿物的钻石可以被地下火山推到地球表面。这样的话,通过分析钻石包裹的矿物,科学家们可以一窥发生在地壳深处的化学过程。

      该研究的作者指出,对于地幔矿物来说,goldschmidtite具有一种特殊的化学成分。

      加拿大阿尔伯塔大学的博士生,这项研究的合作者尼科尔·迈耶(NicoleMeyer)在一份声明中说,“Goldschmidtite含有高浓度的铌、钾和稀土元素镧和铈,而其余的地幔则含有更多其他元素,如镁和铁。”她说,钾和铌占矿物质的大部分,意味着在附近有着更丰富的其他元素的情况下,相对稀有的元素聚集在一起形成了这种不寻常的物质。

      迈耶的合作导师、地幔地球化学家格雷厄姆·皮尔森(GrahamPearson)在一份声明中说:“对于钻石捕捉到的包裹体来说,Goldschmidtite是一种很不同寻常的矿物质,它让我们见识到了在钻石形成时,对地幔深处造成影响的流体过程。”Meyer在一封电子邮件中说,这种奇怪的矿物现在位于多伦多的安大略皇家博物馆内。


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